Looking down, she made a cursory effort to smooth some of the rumples in her dress uniform. Travel in the government magtube network, buried deep underground, was relatively undignified; here the quintessential human science of logistics was given the maximum rein, with passengers accordingly reduce to, at best, cargo. At worst, in this realm, we are only an inefficiency. There was certainly a tendency in many modern human societies to regard the human generally as a social obstacle, but much of Qurnese culture and intentional social engineering worked to mitigate this.
Figures are for weekly reporting member banks in leading cities. Government obligations include both direct and fully guaranteed issues. Demand deposits adjusted exclude United States Government and interbank deposits and items in process of collection.
New York City banks showed some decline in deposits at the end of and a small increase during the latter part of Chicago banks gained deposits but increased their loans and investments more rapidly and their reserves declined.
At banks in leading cities outside New York and Chicago both deposits and investments increased rapidly in and Available data for other banks, not shown on the charts, indicate a continued growth in deposits and investments and also a small increase in reserves.
Deposits at country member banks in fact showed larger percentage increases during the year than did those at jcity banks. As long as New York City banks are heavy purchasers of Government securities, funds are likely to flow from that center to the rest of the country, and the extent to which banks in New York City and in Chicago will be expected to purchase Government securities will depend largely on the growth of participation in Government financing by banks outside of these cities, and particularly by nonbank investors.
Banks elsewhere, on the other hand, had large amounts of unused reserves and were constantly gaining funds. For these reasons the reductions in reserve requirements were made applicable solely to central reserve city banks.
Rates on advances to nonmember banks secured by direct obligations of the United States were similarly lowered to a uniform one per cent. Louis, Kansas City, and Dallas had in effect a rate of one per cent on advances to member banks secured by Government obligations and a rate of 1V2 per cent on other eligible paper.
During October all Federal Reserve Banks established discount rates of Vz of one per cent on advances to member banks secured by United States Government obligations maturing or callable in one year or less.
Rates on advances to member banks secured by other United States Government obligations and rates on eligible paper continued at one per cent. Rates on advances to individuals, partnerships, and corporations other than banks secured by direct obligations of the United States and rates on industrial advances and commitments under Section 13b were also reduced during Discount rates in effect on December 31, The reductions in discount rates, however, provide an alternative means for member banks to obtain reserve funds, when they may need them, by borrowing from the Reserve Banks at a low rate.
This action was an additional step to encourage member banks to make fuller use of their available excess reserves in helping to finance the war, and to bring about a wider distribution of short-term Government securities among banks outside of financial centers.
This statement was as follows: There will be no deterrents in examination or supervisory policy to investments by banks in Government securities of all types, except those securities made specifically ineligible for bank investment by the terms of their issue.
In connection with Government financing, individual subscribers relying upon anticipated income may wish to augment their subscriptions by temporary borrowings from banks.
Such loans will not be subject to criticism but should be on a short-term or amortization basis fully repayable within periods not exceeding six months. Banks will not be criticized for utilizing their idle funds as far as possible in making such investments and loans and availing themselves of the privilege of temporarily borrowing from or selling Treasury bills to the Federal Reserve Banks when necessary to restore their required reserve positions.
Increases in borrowing at this time, especially for purposes of building up inventories of goods, for purchasing houses or land, or for buying consumer goods, add to the pressure of inflationary forces, while reductions in outstanding loans, which divert income from spending, are anti-inflationary.
Reduction in debt also places debtors in albetter position to withstand the effects of possible future declines in income. Total loans outstanding at banks declined during Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet.
Nozzles Catalogue + Updates - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online.
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