This definition enjoyed widespread currency for decades. However, this meaning was contested, notably by radical behaviorists such as John B.
Return to EdPsyc Interactive: Courses Power Point Presentation There is much discussion about what young people should do in their childhood and youth to prepare them for success in adulthood. Once the desired end results or the prerequisites for success have determinedit is necessary to determine the means or the conditions by which those can be brought about.
Education and schooling are two terms that are often associated with these conditions. While education and schooling are sometimes thought to be interchangeable, there are some important distinctions as is evident in these basic definitions: Education The process of: From this perspective, education is serving primarily an individual development function.
In this sense, education is serving a social and cultural function. Schooling Teaching and learning that takes place in formal environments.
Three categories of education are generally recognized: Non-formal education begins at birth and continues throughout life. It is provide by parents, siblings, friends, and so forth; it is constant and ongoing.
Informal education involves somewhat structured guidance of learning, but is done without a lot of formal structure. Attending Sunday school or Boy or Girl Scout meetings would involve this category of education. Formal education, or schooling, generally begins somewhere between 4 and 6 when children are gathered together for the purposes of specific guidance related to skills and competencies that society deems important.
However, in today's digitalinformationor conceptual age, adults are quite often learning in formal settings throughout their working lives and even into retirement. The definitions of schooling and education immediately raise some important issues: What is the nature of a human being and what is the nature of the society or culture in which the child is expected to be successful?
These larger questions are addressed to some extent in educational psychology courses, but are more readily addressed in developmental psychology and foundations of education courses. That is why these courses are often prerequisites to courses in educational psychology. Educational Psychology is a combination or overlapping of two separate fields of study.
The first is psychologywhich can be defined as the scientific study of the mind and behavior or behavior and mental processesespecially as it relates to individual human beings.
Note that it is the scientific study of mind or mental processes covert or internal as well as behavior overt or external. People who study psychological phenomena are not necessarily limited to the study of human beings a large body of research relating to animals has been developed nor are they limited to only studying individuals.
However, when studying groups of individuals, the focus is generally on how individuals perform within the group rather than the study of the group as a whole.
Scientists who study animals and people in terms of group- and institutional-behavior generally align themselves with sociology while individuals who focus on human culture and belief systems generally align themselves with anthropology. The second field of study with which educational psychology aligns itself is education or more specifically schooling, as defined above.
That is, the primary focus of this subdiscipline of psychology is the scientific study of mind and behavior or mental processes and behavior in the context of formally socializing and developing the potential of individual human beings. Educational psychology is therefore a distinct scientific discipline within psychology that includes both methods of study and a resulting knowledge base.
It is concerned primarily with understanding the processes of teaching and learning that take place within formal environments and developing ways of improving the affiliated operations and procedures. Learning can be defined as the relatively permanent change in an individual's behavior or behavior potential or capability as a result of experience or practice i.
This can be compared with the other primary process producing relatively permanent change--maturation--that results from biological growth and development.
Therefore, when a relatively permanent change in ourselves or others, the primary cause was either maturation biology or learning experienceor, as is often the case, some combination of both. As educators, there is nothing we can do to alter an individual's biology; the only influence open to use is to provide an opportunity for students to engage in experiences that will lead to relatively permanent change.
Teaching, then, can be thought of as the purposeful direction and management of the learning process. Note that teaching is not giving knowledge or skills to students; teaching is the process of providing guided opportunities for students to produce relatively permanent change through the engagement in experiences provided by the teacher.
In summary, the primary purpose of schooling, which is only one of the institutional influences in a person's education, is to assist the individual to better develop his or her full potential as well as to develop the knowledge, attitudes, and skills to interact with the environment in a successful manner.
The familyreligious organizationsand community also share primary responsibility in the educational process see Huitt, for additional detail. In my opinion, parents and educators should be concerned at least with helping students to develop individual capacities, acquire personal virtues, and provide service to others.
Developing capacities involves first identifying possible domains of performance and then providing students opportunities to successfully develop their capacities i. The acquisition of virtues is generally concerned with moral characterdealing with issues of the direction and quality of life and doing the right thing verses competence which is concerned with doing the thing right.
Providing service to others acknowledges that individuals grow and develop within a social context and need to be concerned with positively interacting with that context.
All of these concern the development of a vision of who the person is as a human being, the individual's expectations about what is possible, and more specifically, the individual dreams, goals, and desires that one has for his or her life. In an ideal society, the institutions of family, schools, religious organizations, and communities would provide a coherent set of opportunities for children and youth to engage in experiences that would result in high levels of expertise in these three areas and an attitude of striving for excellence in both individual and social development.
However, the other major influences on the child or youth may not be providing appropriate opportunities.This course provides a basic introduction to the nature of human growth and development from conception through adolescence.
Students are provided the opportunity to explore the physical, psychosocial, and cognitive factors of growth and development from both a theoretical and a . Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and ashio-midori.com is an academic discipline of immense scope and diverse interests that, when taken together, seek an understanding of the emergent properties of brains, and all the variety of epiphenomena they manifest.
As a social science it aims to understand individuals and groups. The study of human development is a rich and varied subject. We all have personal experience with development, but it is sometimes difficult to understand how .
Developmental psychology is the scientific study of how and why human beings change over the course of their life. Originally concerned with infants and children, the field has expanded to include adolescence, adult development, aging, and the entire lifespan.
It includes the study and application of psychology for the purpose of understanding, preventing, and relieving psychologically based distress, dysfunction or mental illness and to promote subjective well-being and personal development.
Central to its practice are psychological assessment and psychotherapy although clinical psychologists may. The Theory of Cognitive Development, is a comprehensive theory about the nature and development of human intelligence first developed by Jean ashio-midori.com is primarily known as a developmental stage theory, but in fact, it deals with the nature of knowledge itself and how humans come gradually to acquire it, construct it, and use ashio-midori.comer; Piaget claims the idea that cognitive development is.