Consequentialism Because deontological theories are best understood in contrast to consequentialist ones, a brief look at consequentialism and a survey of the problems with it that motivate its deontological opponents, provides a helpful prelude to taking up deontological theories themselves. Some consequentialists are monists about the Good.
How Would Kant Approach This? Bowen Jul 15, The philosopher Immanuel Kant developed a rational approach to ethical decision making that can help guide healthcare leaders as they find themselves struggling to respond in a changing marketplace.
A hypothetical hospital is considering closing a service line that is having trouble meeting budgeted revenues due to low volumes and difficulty recruiting needed physicians.
After reviewing all the financial data and market information, hospital executives find themselves at odds over whether to shut down the service line. The CEO suggests they take a step back and look at the situation from an ethical perspective. But how exactly might the executives do that?
What specific steps might they follow? Like many healthcare business decisions, the options are not black or white, but grey.
Immanuel Kant could help.
Despite having died more than years ago, Kant left us with philosophical insights that are still guiding the ethical behavior of individuals and organizations today. The model was tested and refined with input from two global pharmaceutical organizations.
A Practical Ethical Decision-Making Model This practical model guides leaders and managers through a systematic analysis of the ethical aspects of a decision and to understand that decision, and its ramifications, from a multiplicity of perspectives.
While the model was initially developed for public relations and communications professionals, it can be adapted by healthcare executives and managers—even those with little or no training in ethics—to conduct rigorous and methodical analyses of ethical dilemmas. A Deontological Approach Kant took what is known as a deontological approach to ethicswhich is based on a rational, duty-bound approach to decision making.
The deontological branch of ethics argues: Cambridge University Press, ; Flew, A. A decision using a deontological paradigm is potentially more complex than one based on utilitarianismwhich promotes the pursuit of happiness or good of the greatest number.
In Kantian philosophy, a decision can be truly moral only if it is made by an autonomous, rational decision maker.
Autonomy is essential to ethical decision making because it frees the decision maker from the subjective concerns of personal desires, fears of negative repercussions, or other biased decision-making influences. Therefore, autonomy is the freedom to make a decision based on what is morally right in a universal sense rather than self-interested concerns.
The ethical model presented here see exhibit above begins by asking leaders to address the Kantian concept of autonomy. It asks the decision maker to rule out prudential self-interest, greed, and selfish motives by posing the questions: Would the decision maker see the merit of the decision if he or she were on the receiving end of such a decision?
Leaders are asked to consider: Am I doing the right thing? Am I proceeding with a morally good will? Are dignity and respect for others maintained? Positioned inside the triangle, in arbitrary order, are the groups—the public, stakeholders, self, the organization, and society—that leaders should consider as they answer these three questions.
Back-and-Forth Communication The last phase of implementing the practical model see exhibit above is to communicate all the ethical considerations to stakeholder groups—and to consider their input in decision making.
Through such consideration, a more equitable and mutually satisfactory decision can be reached than with nonsymmetrical methods. The information gained through ongoing communication with stakeholders could play a vital role in the decision-making process.
Mutually Beneficial Solutions The symmetrical model presented here allows leaders to gain knowledge of an issue from a perspective outside the organization and to incorporate that knowledge in its decision making.
Such dialogue and collaboration often lead to mutually beneficial solutions.1 Resolving an Ethical Dilemma Thomas I. White, Ph.D. / [email protected] This document is in PDF format and can be found at ashio-midori.com For more detail on this topic, go to page 3.
Applying Ethics in an Ethical Dilemma Sean Harrell Walden University Abstract I would never have thought that the hardest part of this assignment was to find a good example of a business organization behaving ethically in an ethical dilemma.
BUSINESS ETHICS:: Kantian Ethics (Deontology) *The Categorical Imperative • Criticisms of Deontology • Moral Dilemma Introduction Last week we looked at the theory of utility, which stated that we have a moral obligation to take the course of action that will have the greatest you should do Y’, and this type can apply to any.
In moral philosophy, deontological ethics or deontology (from Greek δέον, deon, "obligation, duty") is the normative ethical theory that the morality of an action should be based on whether that action itself is right or wrong under a series of rules, rather than based on the consequences of the action.
Mar 15, · Moral Issues in Business focusing on Kant’s Duty-Based Ethics. It will also include suggestions for managers or professionals who want to apply this ethical theory in their organization and the benefits that they can gain from it. an individual should be able to take a moral action without much dilemma if the decision is.
A Model for Ethical Healthcare Business Decisions Shannon A. Bowen Jul 15, The philosopher Immanuel Kant developed a rational approach to ethical decision making that can help guide healthcare leaders as they find themselves struggling to respond in a changing marketplace.