Read a poem inspired by this photograph from the YCC project The nineteenth century saw a huge growth in the population of Great Britain. The reason for this increase is not altogether clear.
Beeton gives extensively detailed instructions on how to supervise servants in preparation for hosting dinners and balls. The etiquette to be observed in sending and receiving formal invitations is given, as well as the etiquette to be observed at the events themselves.
The mistress of the house also had an important role in supervising the education of the youngest children. Beeton makes it clear that a woman's place is in the home, and her domestic duties come first. Social activities as an individual were less important than household management and socialising as her husband's companion.
They were to be strictly limited: After luncheon, morning calls and visits may be made and received Visits of ceremony, or courtesy These visits should be short, a stay of from fifteen to twenty minutes being quite sufficient. A lady paying a visit may remove her boa or neckerchief; but neither shawl nor bonnet In addition to Mrs.
Shirley Forster Murphy a doctor and medical writer, wrote the influential Our Homes, and How to Make them Healthybefore he served as London's chief medical officer in the s. Legal standards for minimum housing conditions were a new concept during the Victorian era, and a working-class wife was responsible for keeping her family as clean, warm, and dry as possible in housing stock that was often literally rotting around them.
In London, overcrowding was endemic in the slums inhabited by the working classes. See Life and Labour of the People in London.
Families living in single rooms were not unusual. The poorer the neighbourhood, the higher the rents. Rents in the Old Nichol area near Hackneyper cubic foot, were five to eleven times higher than rents in the fine streets and squares of the West End of London.
The owners of the slum housing included peers, churchmen, and investment trusts for estates of long-deceased members of the upper classes.
Coal-dust from stoves and factories was the bane of the Victorian woman's housekeeping existence. Carried by wind and fog, it coated windows, clothing, furniture and rugs. Washing clothing and linens would usually be done one day a week, scrubbed by hand in a large zinc or copper tub.
Some water would be heated and added to the wash tub, and perhaps a handful of soda to soften the water. Scrubbing the front wooden doorstep of the home every morning was also an important chore to maintain respectability.
Canada Attorney General in Women lost the rights to the property they brought into the marriage, even following divorce; a husband had complete legal control over any income earned by his wife; women were not allowed to open banking accounts; and married women were not able to conclude a contract without her husband's legal approval.
These property restrictions made it difficult or impossible for a woman to leave a failed marriage, or to exert any control over her finances if her husband was incapable or unwilling to do so on her behalf. Domestic violence towards wives was given increasing attention by social and legal reformers as the 19th century continued.
The first animal-cruelty legislation in Sudan was passed inhowever, legal protection from domestic violence was not granted to women until with the Act for the Better Prevention and Punishment of Aggravated Assaults upon Women and Children. Even this law did not outright ban violence by a man against his wife and children; it imposed legal limits on the amount of force that was permitted.
Inan organisation founded by animal-rights and pro-temperance activists was established to help this social cause. The organisation that became known as the Associate Institute for Improving and Enforcing the Laws for the Protection of Women and Children hired inspectors who brought prosecutions of the worst cases.
It focused its efforts on work-class women, since Victorian practise was to deny that middle-class or aristocratic families were in need of such intervention.
There were sometimes cracks in the facade of propriety. Walter, MP for Berkshirestated in the House of Commons that if members "looked to the revelations in the Divorce Court they might well fear that if the secrets of all households were known, these brutal assaults upon women were by no means confined to the lower classes".
The situation that fathers always received custody of their children, leaving the mother without any rights, slowly started to change.
The Custody of Infants Act in gave mothers of unblemished character access to their children in the event of separation or divorce, and the Matrimonial Causes Act in gave women limited access to divorce.
But while the husband only had to prove his wife's adulterya woman had to prove her husband had not only committed adultery but also incestbigamycruelty or desertion. Inafter an amendment to the Matrimonial Causes Act, women could secure a separation on the grounds of cruelty and claim custody of their children.
Magistrates even authorised protection orders to wives whose husbands have been convicted of aggravated assault. An important change was caused by an amendment to the Married Women's Property Act This legislation recognised that wives were not chattel, or property belonging to the husband, but an independent and separate person.The majority of modern society has accepted that women should be treated equally and laws are now much more in women’s favour.
Statistically, the family status of women in the UK in (% of all women aged 16 and over), 23% of women are single, 54% are married, 4% are cohabiting, 8% are divorced and 12% are widowed. I do think it is important to go into why Reactionaries think Cthulhu always swims left, because without that they’re vulnerable to the charge that they have no a priori reason to expect our society to have the biases it does, and then the whole meta-suspicion of the modern Inquisition doesn’t work or at least doesn’t work in that particular direction.
The poor were expected to work hard but most lived in poverty. The business owning class believed in economy and hard work but it was also a time of child labour and increasing squalor. a la mode (aka topped with ice cream) Food historians confirm the European practice of topping baked goods (most notably pie and cake) with rich cream (sauce, whipped) dates to Renaissance times.
Some sustenance was needed to bridge the gap between breakfast and dinner and so the habit of taking tea in the afternoon was born, often served around 5pm. MORE HOSPITAL AND AGED CARE BEDS FOR MELBOURNE’S EAST. Families in Melbourne’s outer-east will be able to access better hospital and aged care services close to home with a re-elected Andrews Labor Government to deliver a massive expansion of the Angliss Hospital at Ferntree Gully.