The intellectual life of the first half of the sixteenth century was dominated by the Dutch humanist, Desiderius Erasmus ? Although born in Rotterdam, he passed most of his long life elsewhere - in Germany, France, England, Italy, and especially Switzerland.
Origin and meaning of the term humanism The ideal of humanitas The history of the term humanism is complex but enlightening.
It was first employed as humanismus by 19th-century German scholars to designate the Renaissance emphasis on Classical studies in education. These studies were pursued and endorsed by educators known, as early as the late 15th century, as umanisti—that is, professors or students of Classical literature.
The word umanisti derives from the studia humanitatisa course of Classical studies that, in the early 15th century, consisted of grammarpoetryrhetorichistoryand moral philosophy.
The studia humanitatis were held to be the equivalent of the Greek paideia.
Renaissance humanism in all its forms defined itself in its straining toward this ideal. No discussion of humanism, therefore, can have validity without an understanding of humanitas.
Humanitas meant the development of human virtue, in all its forms, to its fullest extent. The term thus implied not only such qualities as are associated with the modern word humanity—understanding, benevolencecompassion, mercy—but also such more assertive characteristics as fortitudejudgment, prudenceeloquence, and even love of honour.
Consequently, the possessor of humanitas could not be merely a sedentary and isolated philosopher or man of letters but was of necessity a participant in active life.
Just as action without insight was held to be aimless and barbaric, insight without action was rejected as barren and imperfect.
Humanitas called for a fine balance of action and contemplation, a balance born not of compromise but of complementarity. The goal of such fulfilled and balanced virtue was political, in the broadest sense of the word.
The purview of Renaissance humanism included not only the education of the young but also the guidance of adults including rulers via philosophical poetry and strategic rhetoric. It included not only realistic social criticism but also utopian hypothesesnot only painstaking reassessments of history but also bold reshapings of the future.
Humanism had an evangelical dimension: The wellspring of humanitas was Classical literature. Greek and Roman thought, available in a flood of rediscovered or newly translated manuscripts, provided humanism with much of its basic structure and method.
For Renaissance humanists, there was nothing dated or outworn about the writings of AristotleCiceroor Livy. Compared with the typical productions of medieval Christianitythese pagan works had a fresh, radical, almost avant-garde tonality.
Indeed, recovering the classics was to humanism tantamount to recovering reality. Classical philosophyrhetoric, and history were seen as models of proper method—efforts to come to terms, systematically and without preconceptions of any kind, with perceived experience.
Moreover, Classical thought considered ethics qua ethics, politics qua politics: Classical virtue, in examples of which the literature abounded, was not an abstract essence but a quality that could be tested in the forum or on the battlefield.
Finally, Classical literature was rich in eloquence. In particular, humanists considered Cicero to be the pattern of refined and copious discourse, as well as the model of eloquence combined with wise statesmanship. In eloquence humanists found far more than an exclusively aesthetic quality.
As an effective means of moving leaders or fellow citizens toward one political course or another, eloquence was akin to pure power.Religion and Humanism, The Sophists to Secular Humanism. He says somewhere that man is the measure of all things, of the existing, that they are, and of the non-existing, that they are not.
Linear Perspective. During the Renaissance, from roughly the 14th to 16th century, there were many advances in science, math, philosophy, and ashio-midori.com of the most monumental advances in art was the. The Real History of the Crusades. The crusades are quite possibly the most misunderstood event in European history.
Most of what passes for public knowledge about it .
Exploring Leonardo A great site for students (grades ) by the Boston Museum of Science, Exploring Leonardo is organized into four major learning areas and a resource center and offers engaging lessons in science, art, history, and language arts. The Renaissance art denotes various forms of art including sculpture, painting and decorative arts from a period that spanned the 14 th to 17 th century.
The Renaissance movement began in the Late Middle Ages in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe. Secular humanism, or simply humanism, is a philosophy or life stance that embraces human reason, ethics, and philosophical naturalism while specifically rejecting religious dogma, supernaturalism, pseudoscience, and superstition as the basis of morality and decision making..
Secular humanism posits that human beings are capable of being ethical and moral without religion or a god.