Moscow and only properly made Emperor by Papal coronation, with all its expressed and implied conditions, not surprisingly was soon shown to be wielding a fatally compromised and fading form of power. In the treatment here, "Francia" will mean all of Europe that in the Mediaeval period was subject to the Roman Catholic Church, with its Latin liturgy, headed by the Popethe Bishop of Rome. Since the Pope retained the right to crown Emperors in the area subject to his Church, the Emperors in Charlemagne's line retained an implicit primacy, if not sovereignty, over all of Roman Catholic Europe, however little actual authority they may have exercised. For many centuries, Latin was the principal, sometimes the only, written language over an area, "greater" Francia, that came to stretch from Norway to Portugal and from Iceland to Catholic parts of the Ukraine.
By the 8th century, Frankish King Charlemagne had conquered territories spanning over modern-day Germany, France and Italy among others. Charlemagne was crowned Emperor and with him the Holy Roman Empire began.
Although the Empire nearly disintegrated in the 9th century, it was effectively re-consolidated in the 10th century under Otto I. During the same period, German princes of different territories also emerged as major power brokers in the affairs of the Empire, leading to the establishment of their votes in affairs as important as the election of the King.
Reformation Period The Reformation period in the 15th century came with major changes to the political dynamics of the Holy Roman Empire. It was during the reign of Charles V in the first half of the 15th century that the Spanish territories were consolidated under a single crown for the first time.
It also marked a rift between the Kings of Germany and Spain. Germany was further distanced from Spain by the launch of Protestant movement by Martin Luther in A major part of the German territories in the north and the east soon embraced Protestantism while those in south and west remained Catholic.
Political Structure of the Empire The political structure of the Holy Roman Empire was unique in that although it had an Emperor during most of its history, it was highly decentralised and comprised of a vast number of individual political entities. Although the supreme power was vested in the Emperor, the individual political entities were effectively ruled by different princes, dukes, counts, bishops and abbots.
Called princes, some of these individual rulers in time came to be powerful enough to have a say in important matters of the Empire and even in the election of the Emperor. Election of the Emperor The most powerful dukes and bishops were involved in the election of the Holy Roman Emperor. By 14th century, this process had been formalised and the power of election was limited to the hands of seven princes.
By the 17th century, the Duke of Bavaria was added to this list. Any new Emperor needed the vote of all these German princes in order to secure his seat on the throne and this was usually done through offers of lands and money to these electors.
Even after his election by the princes, the new King or Emperor had to be crowned by the Pope to finally establish himself as the ruler of the Empire. It was a sort of assembly divided into three classes.
The Council of Electors was the most powerful class of the Diet, comprising of the elector princes who voted for the King. The Council of Princes comprised of the other princes of different territories throughout the Empire.
The Council of Imperial Cities was the least powerful class and was the last to be added to the Diet, formally recognised only in the 17th century.
The Imperial Cities had little say in most vital decisions of the Empire. The Decline of the Empire After the 15th century Reformation, the Empire saw its German territories largely accept Protestant faith which put them at odds with the rest of the Catholic territories of the Empire.
However, the Empire was left intact mostly in name alone and mostly comprised of individual territories and a small area directly under the Holy Roman Emperor.
The decisive end came with a military defeat of the Empire at the hands of Napoleon Bonaparte in The Holy Roman Empire (HRE) was a type of a confederation between central european states and the position of the emperor was elected among 7 electors between duchies, bishoprics and one king.
Each house that was selected to be emperor would resid. The Holy Roman Empire in the Middle Ages In AD , Pope John XII was in trouble. He had offended Berengar of Ivrea* who had invaded the territory of. The Holy Roman Empire (HRE)was faced with many difficulties during the later Middle Ages.
The vast distances between territorial holdings, extreme regional disparities, ethnic complexities, and the lack of a strong hereditary kingship prevented the consolidation and centralisation of authority that characterised the New Monarchies of England, France, and Spain.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th ashio-midori.com began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance and the Age of ashio-midori.com Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, and the modern period.
The Holy Roman Empire was an attempt to resurrect the Western empire of Rome. Many people confuse the Holy Roman Empire with the Roman Empire that existed during the New Testament period. However, these two empires were different in both time period and location.
The Middle Ages, or Medieval Times, in Europe was a long period of history from AD to AD. That's years! It covers the time from the fall of the Roman Empire to the rise of the Ottoman Empire.
This was a time of castles and peasants, guilds and monasteries, cathedrals and crusades.